The principle of ovulation

Ovulation take place on the 14th day of the menstrual cycle, which lasts 28 days on average. The principle is simple: an oocyte is released in the pelvis by the ovary and then sucked out through one of the two fallopian tubes. If there is no fertilisation (which results in an embryo) in the fallopian tube, the egg is quickly destroyed (cell death) and menstruation occurs about 2 weeks later.

LUNA Memo:

The 1st day of your period is the 1st day of the menstrual cycle.

Days 1 to 14: The Follicular Phase

The follicular phase is the period between day 1 and day 14 of your cycle. This phase therefore begins on the first day of your period. During this phase, FSH enables the ovary to grow 4 to 5 follicles, in order to select one: the dominant follicle.

These follicles will secrete oestrogen which will allow the uterine mucosa to develop, reaching a thickness necessary for the development of a possible embryo. The duration of this phase can vary.

Day 14: The Ovulation Phase

The ovulation phase occurs on the 14th day. It allows the dominant follicle to release the oocyte into the fallopian tube. The dominant follicle will transform into a corpus luteum, responsible for the secretion of progesterone during the last part of the menstrual cycle.

Days 14 to 28: The Luteal Phase

The luteal phase is the period between days 14 and 28 of your cycle. The progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum has a negative feedback effect on FSH and LH and acts as a brake. During this phase, the endometrium is kept thick by the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum. In the event of fertilisation, the corpus luteum is maintained and will prevent your period from occurring. In the absence of pregnancy, the corpus luteum is destroyed and the absence of progesterone causes menstruation. The hormonal cycle then starts again.

 

Important: only the luteal phase is constant and lasts 14 days. On the other hand, your follicular phase can vary and be responsible for a longer or shorter menstrual cycle. The day of ovulation is therefore calculated according to the length of the usual cycle.

Double ovulation: is that even possible?!

It’s simple: the principle of double ovulation is that instead of one egg, the ovary releases two in the same cycle!

If they are fertilized, they will give birth to dizygotic twins (fraternal twins). Thus, it is possible to ovulate several times in the same month.

What are the symptoms and causes of multiple ovulation?

The symptoms

The symptoms are the same as for a single ovulation, but may be different for each woman:

  • Pain in the ovaries
  • Mood swings
  • Strong breast tenderness
  • An increase in your temperature
  • An increase in libido

In the case of a double ovulation, the hormone levels are higher and the pain during the period may be even more pronounced.

Causes

Double ovulation can be caused by the use of medication (paucifollicular ovarian stimulation) to aid reproduction, but also by a decrease in ovarian reserve, which would then be compensated by the release of two oocytes.

LUNA helps you:

With your LUNA Evaluation and LUNA and Me, identify and analyze your pain profile. Evaluate and visualize their evolution regularly thanks to curves and graphs, and find all the advice from LUNA to take care of yourself and gain ground on the disease!


Co-authored and scientifically validated by Pr Pietro Santulli

Head of the Reproductive Medicine Unit attached to the Obstetrics and Gynecology II Department of the Cochin Hospital in Paris


Read also: LUNA Explains: What Is The Menstrual Cycle?